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Mata adalah jendela dunia. Tentunya kita sering mendengar ungkapan tersebut. Tentu saja kalimat tersebut menggambarkan betapa pentingnya mata bagi kehidupan seseorang, apalagi pada masa-masa awal kehidupan, seperti pada bayi dan anak-anak kecil. Seperti yang kita lihat, saat ini sangat banyak anak kecil menggunakan kacamata sebagai alat bantu penglihatan. Tentunya para orang tua cukup prihatin dengan keadaan tersebut, sampai bahkan sering ada pertanyaan terlontar ‘Kok kecil-kecil uda rusak sih matanya sampe harus pake kacamata? Padahal kan mereka ga ngapa-ngapain…’
Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut tentunya kita harus lihat kembali sebetulnya apa saja sih faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kerusakan mata terutama pada anak-anak. Faktor pertama adalah faktor genetik. Faktor genetik atau keturunan yang dimaksud disini adalah bahwa banyak di antara keluarga yang memerlukan atau memakai kacamata. Faktor genetik ini dapat berperan sekitar 30% – 35%. Biasanya kerusakan yang diturunkan adalah Cylinder myopia, Myopia (mata minus), Hipermetropia (mata plus). Perlu diingat bahwa faktor keturunan ini tidak hanya berlaku untuk 1keturunan (langsung dari bapak / ibu), tetapi bisa juga terjadi dari 3 generasi, dan polanya tidak beraturan, bisa pada pria ataupun wanita.
Faktor penyebab yang lain tentu saja berasal dari lingkungan sekitar, mengambil peran sekitar 65%-70%. Faktor lingkungan tentunya termasuk juga di dalamnya adalah riwayat si anak selama dalam kandungan. Lahir terlalu cepat (prematur < 38 minggu), lahir terlalu lama (post matur > 42 minggu), gizi buruk ibu, obat-obatan ibu, penyakit infeksi, trauma atau kecelakaan merupakan penentu riwayat si anak selama dalam kandungan yang nantinya dapat mempengaruhi kerusakan mata. Lalu pada saat persalinan pun memegang peran yang cukup penting. Seorang anak yang sulit jalan lahirnya sehingga harus memakai alat bantu seperti forceps, vakum, akan mempunyai kemungkinan kerusakan mata dibandingkan bayi yang jalan lahirnya lancar.
The meeting will be held 300-101 Dumps Exam on Monday, when more 200-125 Exam Dumps than 10,000 guests will gather in New York. Tami 200-125 Exam Dumps Joan stared at the billboard – black, white and yellow, all smiling and waved. However, this 300-101 Dumps Exam painting seems to be something not quite right. The proportions and Learningpdf color of the characters are ignored, and each face looks the same pale. Tami Joan murmured Dead. They are galloping along Prepexamwell the wide 101 test freeway. Under the lights, the road Prepexamwell reflects a disturbing yellow light. They passed the Prepexamwell old Navys naval port and again passed the Brooklyn Ferry Terminal. John finally stopped talking, pulled out a calculator from Texas Instruments, and started ticking some numbers. Tami Joan leaned back on the back of the chair looking 200-125 Exam Dumps out over foggy sidewalks and gloomy faces of those who sat on 300-101 Dumps Exam the brownstone porch overlooking the highway. In the heat, they seem to be in a semi-lethargic state. Taxi Prepexamwell is also very 101 test hot. Tami Joan reaches for the window 300-101 Dumps Exam button and wants to lower the window a 300-101 Dumps Exam little. The window did not respond, but she did not feel surprised. She reached out across John and went to the other side of the Learningpdf window, but he was over there too. At this moment she noticed that the door locks on both sides had Prepexamwell disappeared. Not even the door. She groping at the door with her hand to find the remnants of the broken door handle. Nothing at all – as if someone had sawn it with a hacksaw. What happened John asked. Well, 300-101 Dumps Exam this car door how do 200-125 Exam Dumps we open it Just as John 101 test looked around the door, the logo for the Midtown Tunnel Prepexamwell flashed past. Learningpdf Hi John tapped the partition. You forgot to bend, where are you going 300-101 Dumps Exam Maybe he wants to go to the Queensboro Bridge, Tameng conjectured. Although the road to go the bridge more distant, but can escape the tunnel toll station. She sat forward and beat the plexiglass with the Learningpdf ring on her hand. Do you want to 300-101 Dumps Exam go that bridge The driver ignored them. Hi Not long after, Prepexamwell they passed through the entrance to the Queensboro Bridge again. Damn John shouted. Where are you going to bring us Harlem Prepexamwell I bet he is going to take us to Prepexamwell Harlem. Tami Joan looks out the Learningpdf window. A car is moving forward with them and slowly over them. She patted the window. Help She shouts, Help The drivers Prepexamwell car glanced at her inadvertently, then glanced, frowned. He slowed down and followed behind them. But 101 test then suddenly a taxi abrupt, down the exit ramp down the highway, into Learningpdf Queens. Taxis turn into an alley, galloping over an abandoned warehouse district, at a speed of at least 60 miles. What do you want to do Tamijong tapped the partition. 200-125 Exam Dumps Open slow Where is Learningpdf this Oh, Learningpdf 101 test God No John murmured, Look The driver did not know when to wear a ski boot. What do you want Shouted Tarim Joan. Do you want money We give you 200-125 Exam Dumps money. The man on the front seat remained silent. Tami Joan opened the bag and 300-101 Dumps Exam removed her black laptop. She leaned back to the 101 test side of the window and hit the window hard with a laptop corner. The huge noise seemed to have shocked the driver on 200-125 Exam Dumps the front seat, but the windowpane was fine. Taxi suddenly biased, almost hit the brick wall Learningpdf of the roadside buildings. Give you money How much I can give 300-101 Dumps Exam you a lot of money John cried angrily, tears flowing down his 300-101 Dumps Exam obese cheeks. Tami Joan again smashed the window with the computer. The screen of the 200-125 Exam Dumps computer flew out of the 200-125 Exam Dumps huge impact force, but the windows were still intact. She tried again, the computers fuselage cracked, falling from her hand. Europe, Mom Both of them 101 test were suddenly thrown violently forward. Taxi stopped abruptly in a dark alley. Driver drilled out of the car, holding a pistol in his hand. Please, please She begged. The driver walked to the back half of the taxi, bent over and looked through the dirty glass to the back seat.
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Selain faktor di atas, masalah teknologi juga mengambil andil yang cukup besar dalam kerusakan mata anak-anak jaman sekarang. Sekarang ini, anak berumur 5 tahun saja sudah sangat lihai bermain dengan komputer sampai berjam-jam, atau menonton TV berjam-jam. Mata yang dipakai bekerja terus menerus seperti itu apalag pada anak kecil dimana sedang dalam proses penyempurnaan perkembangan mata, tentunya akan dapat menjadi sangat tergangu sehingga pada akhirnya terjadi kerusakan mata dan dapat menuju ke arah pemakaian kacamata pada si anak.
Pada saat mata si kecil mulai rusak atau terganggu biasanya dia tidak akan mengatakan pada orang tua karea dia sendiri tidak menyadari bahwa matanya mengalami gangguan. Sebagai orang tua, tentu kita yang harus menjadi lebih peka dengan keadaan anak. Berikut adalah ciri-ciri anak yang matanya sudah mulai terganggu dan membutuhkan kacamata sebagai alat bantu, yaitu :
- Sering berkedip-kedip dan mengucek-ngucek mata
- Tidak bisa lama untuk berkonsentrasi di sekolah
- Sering mengantuk
- Menyipitkan mata
- Mengernyitkan dahi dan dagu diarahkan ke atas atau ditekan ke leher (chin depression)
- Sering bintilan pada kelopak mata yang menandakan kelelahan mata. Biasanya mata memiliki silinder
- Guliran kepala (Head position) memberi dampak yang sangat negative pada perkembangan anak berikutnya yaitu: gangguan pertumbuhan tulang pipi, kekakuan pada tulang leher dan kemiringan tulang belikat
Tentunya bila telah menemukan keadaan anak seperti di atas, segera diperhatikan dan diperiksakan matanya ke dokter spesialis mata, dan kalaupun akhirnya si kecil dianjurkan untuk memakai kacamata, kita sebagai orang tua juga harus memperhatikan pemilihan kacamata yang cocok pada si kecil. Berikut beberapa hal yang sebaiknya diperhatikan:
- Ukuran kekuatan lensa, ukuran yang tidak sesuai akan menimbulan efek pusing dan tidak nyaman pada anak
- Pemasangan lensa pada bingkai penting terutama lensa dengan silinder tinggi > 1 Dioptri
- Pemilihan ukuran bingkai (ukuran vertikal) dan lebar kacamata atau bingkai sesuai lebar muka dan jarak kedua mata
- Pada anak-anak sampai dengan usia 18 tahun selalu dianjurkan lensa plastik, supaya anak tidak memakai kacamata yang berat, selain itu juga masalah keamanan (pecah) dan tahan lama
- Keperluan adanya pemberian lapisan lensa (coating) tertentu misalnya untuk: anti radiasi komputer, UV blocking, tahan gores, anti pantul cahaya terutama mengendarai mobil pada malam hari
- Ukuran tinggi vertikal bingkai sebaiknya tidak terlalu besar, berkisar 25-27 mm.
- Untuk silinder diatas -1.00 , fitting kacamata harus OK ( tidak terlalu melorot sehingga anak melihat tepat dititik fokus yang telah dianjurkan dan supaya si anak bisa melihat dengan lebih jelas)
Kebanyakan orang tua akan sangat merasa berkeberatan ketika mengetahui kalau si kecil dianjurkan untuk memakai kacamata. Sebenarnya pemakaian kacamata ini tidak perlu ditakuti karena pemakaian kacamata tidak harus seumur hidup, karena dapat diberikan pelaihan-pelatihan pada si kecil untuk mengurangi bertambah parahnya kerusakan matanya. Pelatihan fisik di alam terbuka seperti berenang, olah raga dengan penggunaan bola yang berukuran kecil dan gerakan cepat dengan jarak berganti-ganti seperti tenis meja, latihan lompat tali, latihan keseimbangan sebenarnya dapat membantu untuk melatih mata si kecil.
Selain itu, aktifitas mata si kecil harus selalu disertai dengan istirahat sejenak ± 15 menit, untuk merilekskan otot – otot akomodasi iris dan otot mata, sehingga mencegah kelelahan pada mata, kekakuan otot leher, panas di mata, pusing kepala dan kesemutan (parestesia) di punggung dan lengan atas sampai bawah. Salah satu contoh aktivitas mata yang paling sering menimbulkan keluhan seperti diatas yaitu, komputer, game dan tv (faktor teknologi seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas).
Pemberian gizi anak yang seimbang juga dapat membantu mengurangi kerusakan pada mata si kecil. Pemberian makanan yang mengandung banyak vitamin A (seperti wortel dan tomat), pemberian susu, protein, mineral (terutama dari sayuran dan buah), ekstrak gingseng, ginko biloba juga makanan yang banyak mengandung B kompleks, vitamin D, serta vitamin E akan memberikan efek yang cukup signifikan bahkan memberikan efek menyehatkan pada mata si kecil.
- Ilyas, Prof.Dr. Sidarta dan dr. Ramantjandra. 1988. PENYAKIT MATA ringkasan & istilah. PT Pustaka Utama Grafiti.